Depression and Bipolar

Depression and Bipolar Disorder - Neurofeedback Publications

Level 2: Possibly Efficacious  (description of efficacy levels here)


Clinical Use of an Alpha Asymmetry Neurofeedback Protocol in the Treatment of Mood Disorders: Follow-Up Study One to Five Years Post-Therapy (abs., pg. 7)
by Baehr E Ph.D., Rosenfeld JP Ph.D., Baehr R Ph.D.
This study reports on three of six patients who have completed an average of 27 neurofeedback sessions using a patented alpha asymmetry protocol for the treatment of depression. The follow-up data, from one to five years post therapy, were derived from a single session re-test using the same alpha asymmetry protocol and the Beck Depression Inventory. 


Neurofeedback for the Bipolar Child (abs.)
by Othmer S Ph.D.
Bipolar Disorder used to be a rare diagnosis in childhood. Recent research has elevated the importance of Bipolar Disorder as an issue in perhaps 20% of children formally diagnosed as ADHD. The medical management of these children is problematic, tending to involve anti-convulsants and neuroleptics rather than stimulants and anti-depressants. 


The Bipolar Child by Demitri and Janice Papolos (book review)
by Othmer S
A new diagnostic category is emerging: Childhood bipolar disorder. It was traditionally thought that as few as one in 200 cases of bipolar disorder had an onset which could be traced to childhood. Biederman's recent research shows that perhaps on the other of 20% of children identified as ADHD could be on the way to developing full-blown bipolar disorder. To make this identification, however, the markers of childhood bipolar disorder are destructive rage and irritation rather than the euphoria and elation that characterizes the adult form. The proof that the childhood form of the disorder metamorphoses into the adult form eventually must still be outstanding. The model is still too new. 


Neurofeedback in Major Depression Associated to Addictions - A Case Study (pg. 15)
by Ibric VL, M.D., PhD.
Depression has been treated for some time with Neurofeedback (NF) and different authors presented different modalities in terms of the electrodes localization, or enhanced or inhibited frequencies (see Othmers, Peniston, Rosenfeld,). The case I am presenting, is a 43 years old Caucasian female with familiar major depression and addictions. The causality of her major depression may also be routed in her early childhood experiences (she lost her father, when she was 12), or may be an expression of a complex PTSD developed later in life (when, her already detached and chronically depressed mother has been diagnosed with Alzheimer's). She started to use drugs and alcohol as self medication. 


Allen, J. B.., & Cavendar, J. H. (1996). Biofeedback alters EEG asymmetry. Psychophysiology, 33(suppl), S17, (Abstract).

Baehr, E., & Baehr, R. (1997). The use of brainwave biofeedback as an adjunctive therapeutic treatment for depression: Three case studies. Biofeedback, 25(1), 10-11.

Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R. (1997). The clinical use of an alpha asymmetry protocol in the neurofeedback treatment of depression: Two case studies. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), 10-23.

Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. P., & Baehr, R. (2001). Clinical use of an alpha asymmetry neurofeedback protocol in the treatment of mood disorders: Follow-up study one to five years post therapy. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(4), 11-18.

Berg, K., Siever, D. (2009). A controlled comparison of audio-visual entrainment for treating Seasonal Affective Disorder.  Journal of Neurotherapy 13(3), 166 – 175.

Cantor, D.S., Stevens, E. (2009).QEEG correlates of auditory-visual entrainment treatment efficacy of refractory depression. Journal of Neurotherapy 13(2), 100 – 108.

Hammond, D. C. (2001). Neurofeedback treatment of depression. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), 45-56.

Hardman, E., Gruzelier, J., Chessman, K., Jones, C., Liddiard, D., Schleichert, H., & Birbaumer, N. (1997). Frontal interhemispheric asymmetry: Self-regulation and individual differences in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 221, 117-120.

Kumano, H., Horie, H., Shidara, T., Kuboki, T. et al. (1996). Treatment of a depressive disorder patient with EEG-driven photic stimulation. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 21(4), 323-334.

Putnam, J. A., (2001). EEG biofeedback on a female stroke patient with depression: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(3), 27-38.

Raymond, J., Varney, C., Parkinson, L. A., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2005). The effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on personality and mood. Cognitive Brain Research, 23, 287-292.

Rosenfeld, J. P. (2000). An EEG biofeedback protocol for affective disorders. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 7-12.

Rosenfeld, J. P. (1997). EEG biofeedback of frontal alpha asymmetry in affective disorders. Biofeedback, 25(1), 8-25.

Rosenfeld, J. P., Baehr, E., Baehr, R., Gotlib, I. H., & Ranganath, C. (1996). Preliminary evidence that daily changes in frontal alpha asymmetry correlate with changes in affect in therapy sessions. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 23, 137-141.

Saxby, E., & Peniston, E. G. (1995). Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 685-693.

Schneider, F., Heimann, H., Mattes, R., Lutzenberger, W., & Birbaumer, N. (1992). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: Depression. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 17, 203-214.

Walker, J. E., Lawson, R., & Kozlowski, G. (2007).  Current status of QEEG and neurofeedback in the treatment of depression.  Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback.  Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 341-351.

Hammond, D. C. (2003). QEEG-guided neurofeedback in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 7(2), 25-52.

Hammond, D. C. (2004). Treatment of the obsessional subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder with neurofeedback. Biofeedback, 32, 9-12

back to Emotional Balance here...