Epilepsy - Neurofeedback Publications

Level 4: Efficacious  (description of efficacy levels here)

An excellent overview of alternative techniques for the treatment of epilepsy can be found here...


Andrews, D. J., & Schonfeld, W. H. (1992). Predictive factors for controlling seizures using a behavioral approach. Seizure, 1(2), 111-116.

Ayers, M. E. (1988). Long-term clinical treatment follow-up of EEG neurofeedback for epilepsy. Epilepsy Support Program Newsletter, 3(2), 8-9.

Ayers, M. E. (1995). Long-term follow-up of EEG neurofeedback with absence seizures. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(3), 309-310.

Birbaumer, N., Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B., Daum, I., Wolf, P., & Canavan, A. (1991). Clinical psychological treatment of epileptic seizures: A controlled study. Chapter in A. Ehlers et al. (Eds.), Perspectives and Promises of Clinical Psychology. New York: Plenum Press.

Cott, A., Pavloski, R. P., & Black, A. H. (1979). Reducing epileptic seizures through operant conditioning of central nervous system activity: Procedural variables. Science, 203, 73-75.

Daum, I., Rockstroh, B., Birbaumer, N., Elbert, T., Canavan, A., Lutzenberger, W. (1993). Behavioral treatment of slow cortical potentials in intractable epilepsy: Neuropsychological predictors of outcome. Journal of Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 56 94-97.

Elbert, T., Rockstroh, B., Canavan, A., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., von Bulow, I., & Linden, A. (1990). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials and its role in epileptogenesis. Chapter in J. Carlson & R. Seifert (Eds.), Biobehavioral Self-Regulation and Health. New York: Plenum Press.

Elbertsen, B., & Klove, H. (1976). Clinical application of biofeedback training in epilepsy. Scandinavian Journal of Behavior Therapy, 5, 133-144.

Engel, J., Troupin, A. S., Crandall, P. H., Sterman, M. B., & Wasterlain, C. G. (1982). Recent developments in the diagnosis and therapy of epilepsy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 97, 584-598.

Finley, W. W. (1976). Effects of sham-feedback following successful SMR training in an epileptic: A follow-up study. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1, 227-235.

Finley, W. W. (1977). Operant conditioning of the EEG in two patients with epilepsy: Methodologic and clinical considerations. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 12(2), 93-111.

Finley, W. W., Smith, H. A., & Etherton, M. D. (1975). Reduction of seizures and normalization of the EEG in a severe epileptic following sensorimotor biofeedback training: Preliminary study. Biological Psychiatry, 2, 189-203.

Fischer-Williams, M., & Clifford, B. C. (1988). Biofeedback treatment of patients with seizures: A pilot study of EEG feedback. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 70(1), 18.

Hanson, L. M., Trudeau, D. L., & Grace, D. L. (1996). Neurotherapy and drug therapy in combination for adult ADHD, personality disorder, and seizure disorder: A case report. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(2), 6-14.

Kaplan, B. J. (1975). Biofeedback in epileptics: Equivocal relationship of reinforced EEG frequency to seizure reduction. Epilepsia, 16, 477-485.

Kotchoubey, B., Busch, S., Strehl, U., & Birbaumer, N. (1999). Changes in EEG power spectra during biofeedback of slow cortical potentials in epilepsy. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 24(4), 213-233.

Kotchoubey, B., Strehl, U., Uhlmann, C., Holzapfel, S., Konig, M., Froscher, W., Blankenhorn, V., & Birbaumer, N. (2001). Modification of slow cortical potentials in patients with refractory epilepsy: A controlled outcome study. Epilepsia, 42(3), 406-416.

Kuhlman, W. N. (1978). EEG feedback training of epileptic patients: Clinical and electroencephalographic analysis. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 45(6), 699-710.

Kuhlman, W. N., & Allison, T. (1977). EEG feedback training in the treatment of epilepsy: Some questions and some answers. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 12(2), 112-122.

Lantz, D., & Sterman, M. B. (1988). Neuropsychological assessment of subjects with uncontrolled epilepsy: Effects of EEG biofeedback training. Epilepsia, 29(2), 163-171.

Lubar, J. F., & Bahler, W. W. (1976). Behavioral management of epileptic seizures following EEG biofeedback training of the sensorimotor rhythm. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 7, 77-104.

Lubar, J. F., Shabsin, H. S., Natelson, S. E. et al. (1981). EEG operant conditioning in intractible epileptics. Archives of Neurology, 38, 700-704.

Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1977). Use of biofeedback in the treatment of seizure disorders and hyperactivity. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 204-251.

Monderer, R. S., Harrison, D. M., & Haut, S. R. (2002). Review: Neurofeedback and epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 3, 214-218.

Quy, R. J., Hutt, S. J., & Forrest, S. (1979). Sensorimotor rhythm feedback training and epilepsy: Some methodological and conceptual issues. Biological Psychology, 9, 129-149.

Rockstroh, B., Elbert, T., Birbaumer, N., Wolf, P., Duchting-Roth, A., Reker, M., Daum, I., Lutzenberger, W., & Dichgans, J. (1993). Cortical self-regulation in patients with epilepsies. Epilepsy Research, 14. 63-72.

Rudrud, E., & Striefel, S. (1981). Eight to twelve hertz occipital EEG training with moderate and severely retarded epileptic individuals. Australian Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 7(4), 173-179.

Seifert, A. R.,& Lubar, J. F. (1975). Reduction of epileptic seizures through EEG biofeedback training. Biological Psychology, 3, 157-184.

Sterman, M. B., & Friar, L. (1972). Suppression of seizures in epileptics following sensorimotor EEG feedback training. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 33, 89-95.

Sterman, M. B. (1973a). Neurophysiological and clinical studies of sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training: Some effects on epilepsy. Seminars in Psychiatry, 5(4), 507-525.

Sterman, M. B. (1973b). Neurophysiological and clinical studies of sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training: Some effects on epilepsy. Chapter in L. Birk (Ed.), Biofeedback: Behavioral Medicine. New York: Grune & Stratton, pp. 147-165.

Sterman, M. B., Macdonald, L. R., & Stone, R. K. (1974). Biofeedback training of the sensorimotor electroencephalogram rhythm in man: Effects on epilepsy. Epilepsia, 15(3), 395-416.

Sterman, M. B. (1977). Sensorimotor EEG operant conditioning: Experimental and clinical effects. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Sciences, 12(2), 63-92.

Sterman, M. B., & Macdonald, L. R. (1978). Effects of central cortical EEG feedback training on incidence of poorly controlled seizures. Epilepsia, 19(3), 207-222.

Sterman, M. B., & Shouse, M. N. (1980). Quantitative analysis of training, sleep EEG and clinical response to EEG operant conditioning in epileptics. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 49, 558-576.

Sterman, M. B. (1986). Epilepsy and its treatment with EEG feedback therapy. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 8, 21-25.

Sterman, M. B. (1997).The challenge of EEG biofeedback in the treatment of epilepsy: A view from the trenches. Biofeedback, 25(1), 6-7, 20-21, 23.

Sterman, M. B. (2000). Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 45-55.

Sterman, M. B., & Lantz, D. (2001). Changes in lateralized memory performance in subjects with epilepsy following neurofeedback training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(2), 63-72.

Sterman, M. B., & Egner, T. (2006). Foundation and practice of neurofeedback for the treatment of epilepsy. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 21-36.

Strehl, U., Trevorrow, T., Veit, R., Hinterberger, T., Kotchoubey, B., Erb, M., & Birbaumer, N.(2006). Deactivation of brain areas during self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in seizure patients. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 85-94.

Swingle, P. G. (1998). Neurofeedback treatment of pseudo seizure disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 44(11), 1-4.

Tan, G., Thornby, J., Hammond, D. C., Strehl, U., Canady, B., Arnemann, K., & Kaiser, D. K. (2009).  Meta-analysis of EEG biofeedback in treating epilepsy.  Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 40(3), 173-179.

Tansey, M. A. (1985). The response of a case of petit mal epilepsy to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 81-84.

Tozzo, C.A., Elfner, L. F., & May Jr., J. G. (1988). Biofeedback and relaxation training in the control of epileptic seizures. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 6, 185-194.

Uhlmann, C., & Froscher, W. (2001). Biofeedback treatment in patients with refractory epilepsy: Changes in depression and control orientation. Seizure, 10(1), 34-38.

Upton, A. R., & Longmere, D. (1975). The effects of feedback on focal epileptic discharges in man: A preliminary report. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 2, 153-167.

Walker, J. E. (2008).  Power spectral frequency and coherence abnormalities in patients with intractable epilepsy and their usefulness in long-term remediation of seizures using neurofeedback. Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 39(4), 203-204

Walker, J. E.,& Kozlowski, G. P. (2005). Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 163-176

Whitsett, S. F., Lubar, J. F., Holder, G. S., et al. (1982). A double-blind investigation of the relationship between seizure activity and the sleep EEG following EEG biofeedback training. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 7, 193-209.

Wyler, A. R., Robbins, C. A., & Dodrill, C. B. (1979). EEG operant conditioning for control of epilepsy. Epilepsia, 20, 279-286.

Zhao, L., Liang, Z., Hu, G., & Wu, W. (2005). Nonlinear analysis in treatment of intractable epilepsy with EEG biofeedback. Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering, Medical, & Biological Science, 5, 4568-4571.

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