Developmental Disorders

Developmental Disorders - Neurofeedback Publications

Level 3: Probably Efficacious  (description of efficacy levels here)


Bazanova, O.M., Aftanas, L.I. (2010).Individual EEG alpha activity analysis for enhancement neurofeedback efficiency: Two case studiesJournal of Neurotherapy 14(3), 244 – 253.

Becerra, J., Fernndez, T., Harmony T., Caballero M.I, Garcia F., Fernandez-Bouzas A., Santiago-Rodriguez E, Prado-Alcala R.A. (2006) "Follow-up study of Learning Disabled children treated with Neurofeedback or placebo." Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 37(3), 198-203.

Breteler, M. H. M., Arns, M., Peters, S., Giepmans, I., & Verhoeven, L. (2010).  Improvements in spelling after QEEG-based neurofeedback in dyslexia: A randomized controlled treatment study.  Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 35(1), 5-11.

Budzynski, T.H. (1996). Braining brightening: Can neurofeedback improve cognitive process? Biofeedback, 24(2), 14-17.

Carter, J. L., & Russell, H. L. (1991). Changes in verbal performance IQ discrepancy scores after left hemisphere frequency control training: A pilot report. American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 4(1), 66-67.

Cunningham, M., & Murphy, P. (1981). The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback on verbal, visuospatial and creative skills in LD male adolescents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14(4), 204-208.

Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2001). Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans. NeuroReport, 12, 4155-4159.

Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004).EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: Frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials.Clinical Neurophysiology, 115(1), 131-139. 

Fehmi, L. G. (2007).  Multichannel EEG phase synchrony training and verbally guided attention training for disorders of attention.  Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback.  Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 301-319.

Fernandez, T., Herrera, W., Harmony, T., Diaz-Comas, L., Santiago, E., Sanchez, L., Bosch, J., Fernandez-Bouzas, A., Otero, G., Ricardo-Garcell, J., Barraza, C., Aubert, E., Galan, L., & Valdes, P. (2003). EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children. Clinical Electroencephalography, 34(3), 145-150.

Fleischman, M. J., & Othmer, S. (2005). Case study: Improvements in IQ score and maintenance of gains following EEG biofeedback with mildly developmentally delayed twins. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 35-46.

Foks, M. (2005).Neurofeedback training as an educational intervention in a school setting: How the regulation of arousal states can lead to improved attention and behaviour in children with special needs. Educational & Child Psychology, 22(3), 67-77.

Jackson, G. M., & Eberly, D. A. (1982). Facilitation of performance on an arithmetic task as a result of the application of a biofeedback procedure to suppress alpha wave activity. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 7(2), 211-221.

Jacobs, E. H. (2005). Neurofeedback treatment of two children with learning, attention mood, social, and developmental deficits. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 55-70.

Kaiser, D. A., & Othmer, S. (2000). Effect of Neurofeedback on variables of attention in a large multi-center trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), 5-15.

Kwon, H., Cho, J., Lee, E. (2009). EEG asymmetry analysis of the left and right brain activities during simple versus complex arithmetic learning. Journal of Neurotherapy 13(2), 109 – 116.

Lubar, J. F. (1985). EEG biofeedback and learning disabilities. Theory into Practice, 26, 106-111

Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1976). EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperactive child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): A preliminary report. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1(3), 293-306.

Lutzenberger W, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N. (1982) Biofeedback produced slow brain potentials and task performance. Biological Psychology, 14, 99-111.

McKnight, J. T., & Fehmi, L. G. (2001). Attention and neurofeedback synchrony training: Clinical results and their significance.
Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 45-62..

Mulholland, T. Goodman, D., & Boudrot, R. (1983). Attention and regulation of EEG alpha-attenuation responses. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 8(4), 585-600.

Norris, S. L., Lee, C-T., Burshteyn, D., & Cea-Aravena, J. (2001). The effects of performance enhancement training on hypertension, human attention, stress, and brain wave patterns: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 29-44.

Orlando, P. C., & Rivera, R. O. (2004). Neurofeedback for elementary students with identified learning problems. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 5-19.

Pulvermuller, F., Mohr, B., Schleichert, H., & Veit, R. (2000). Operant conditioning of left-hemispheric slow cortical potentials and its effect on word processing. Biological Psychology, 53, 177-215.

Putnam, J. A., Othmer, S. F., Othmer, S., & Pollock, V. E. (2005). TOVA results following interhemispheric bipolar EEG training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(1), 37-52.

Russell, H. L., & Carter, J. L. (1997). EEG Driven Audio-Visual Stimulation Unit for Enhancing Cognitive Abilities of Learning Disordered Boys: Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education (SBIR), Contract number RA94130002.

Sheer, D. E. (1975). Biofeedback training of 40-Hz EEG and behavior. Chapter in N. Burch & H. I. Altshuler (Eds.), Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity. New York: Plenum.

Surmeli, T., & Ertem, A. (2010).  Post WISC-R and TOVA improvement with QEEG guided neurofeedback training in mentally retarded: A clinical case series of behavioral problems.  Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 41(1), 32-41.

Surmeli, T., & Ertem, A. (2007).  EEG neurofeedback treatment of patients with Down Syndrome.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 63-68.

Tansey, M. A. (1984). EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training: Some effects on the neurological precursors of learning disabilities. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 85-99.

Tansey, M. A. (1985). Brainwave signatures--An index reflective of the brain=s functional neuroanatomy: Further findings on the effect of EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training on the neurologic precursors of learning disabilities. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 3, 85-89.

Tansey, M. A. (1990). Righting the rhythms of reason: EEG biofeedback training as a therapeutic modality in a clinical office setting. Medical Psychotherapy, 3, 57-68.

Tansey, M. A. (1991). Wechsler (WISC-R) changes following treatment of learning disabilities via EEG biofeedback in a private practice setting. Australian Journal of Psychology, 43, 147-153.

Tansey, M. A., & Bruner, R. L. (1983). EMG and EEG biofeedback training in the treatment of 10-year old hyperactive boy with a developmental reading disorder. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 8(1), 25-37.

Thornton, K. E., & Carmody, D. P. (2005). Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 137-162.

Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A., & Gruzelier, J. (2003). The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 47, 75-85.

Walker, J. E., & Norman, C. A. (2006). The neurophysiology of dyslexia: A selective review with implications for neurofeedback remediation and results of treatment in twelve consecutive patients. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(1), 45-55.

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